Scientists with the FWC's Fish and Wildlife Research Institute publish results of their research on harmful algae in books, journals, and other professional publications. Some of the following article titles contain a link to a page where you can order or download them.

Select a Year: In press | 2013 |2012 | 2011 | 20102009200820072006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 19991998199719961995 | 1994 | 1993 | Pre - 1993

In press

Bronk, D., Killberg-Thoreson, L., Mulholland, M., Sipler, R., Roberts, Q., Bernhardt, P., Garrett, M., O’Neil, J., Heil, C. Nitrogen uptake and regeneration (ammonium regeneration, nitrification and photoproduction) in west Florida shelf waters prone to blooms of Karenia spp. Journal of Harmful Algae (in press).

Fernandes, L.F.*, Hubbard, K. A.*, Richlen, M., Smith, J., Bates, S. S., Ehrmann, J., Leger, C., Mafra, L., Kulis, D., Quilliam, M., Libera, K., McCauley, L., Anderson, D.M. (2013). Diversity and toxicity of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia Peragalloin the Gulf of Maine, Northwestern Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part II, special edition (in press). *First and second authors contributed equally to this project.

Heil, C., Bronk, D., Dixon, L., Hitchcock, G., Kirkpatrick, G., Mulholland, M., O’Neil, J., Walsh J., Weisberg, R., Garrett, M. The ECOHAB:Karenia Program. Journal of Harmful Algae (in press). Heil, C., Dixon, K., Lenes, J., Garrett, M., Hall, E., Killberg-Thorsen, L., Bronk, D., Meyer, K.,

Walsh, B., O’Neil, J., Procise, L., Mulholland, M., Hitchcock, G., Kirkpatrick, G., Weisberg, R., Walsh, J. Nutrients, Management and Karenia Blooms: Sources, sinks and cycling of nutrients toKarenia brevisblooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Harmful Algae (in press).

Killberg-Thoreson, L., Sipler, R., Heil, C., Garrett, M., Roberts, Q., Bronk, D. Nutrients released from decaying fish support microbial growth in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Harmful Algae (in press).

Killberg-Thoreson, L., Roberts, Q.N., Sanderson, M.P., Garrett, M., Heil, C.A., Mulholland, M.R., Bronk, D.A. Diel variability of nitrogen uptake by Karenia brevis in a field population and in cultures. Journal of Phycology (in press).

Landsberg, J.H., Lefebvre, K.A., Flewelling, L.J. Effects of toxic microalgae on marine organisms. In: Rossini G.P., editor. Toxins and biologically active compounds from microalgae. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers (in press).

Sheridan, N., Fautin, D., Garrett, M. Gametogenesis and reproduction periodicity of the giant Caribbean sea anemone, Condylactis gigantean, in Florida. Invertebrate Biology (in press).

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2013

Capper, A., Flewelling, L.J., Arthur, K. 2013. Dietary exposure to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxins in the endangered manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Florida, USA. Harmful Algae 28:1-9.

Castle, K.T., Flewelling, L.J., Bryan, J., Kramer, A., Lindsay, J., Nevada, C., Stablein, W., Wong, D., Landsberg, J.H. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (C. familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Diseases.

Fauquier, D.A., Flewelling, L.J., Maucher, J., Manire, C.A., Socha, V., Kinsel, M.J., Stacy, B.A., Henry, M., Gannon, J., Ramsdell, J.S,. Landsberg, J.H. 2013a. Brevetoxin in blood, biological fluids, and tissues of sea turtles naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms in central west Florida. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 44(2):364-375.

Fauquier, D.A., Flewelling, L.J., Maucher, J.M., Keller, M., Kinsel, M.J., Johnson, C.K., Henry, M., Gannon, J.G., Ramsdell, J.S., Landsberg, J.H. 2013b. Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(2):246-260.

Henrichs, D.W., Scott, P.S., Steidinger, K.A., Errera, R.M., Abraham, A. & Campbell, L. 2013. Morphology and phylogeny of Prorocentrum texanumsp. nov. (Dinophyceae): a new toxic dinoflagellate from the Gulf of Mexico waters exhibiting two distinct morphologies. Journal of Phycology 49(1):143-155.
 

Millie, D. F., G. R. Weckman, W. A. Young, J. E. Ivey, D. P. Fries, E. Ardjmand, and G.L. Fahnenstiel. 2013. Coastal ‘Big Data’ and nature-inspired computation: Prediction potentials, uncertainties, and knowledge derivation of neural networks for an algal metric. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 125:57-67.

Sunda, W.G., Burleson, C., Hardison, D.R., Morey, J.S., Wang, Z., Wolny, J., Corcoran, A.A., Flewelling, L.J., Van Dolah, F.M. 2013. Osmotic stress does not trigger brevetoxin production in the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(25):10223-10228.

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2012

Hall, E.R., Nierenberg, K., Boyes, A.J., Heil, C.A., Flewelling, L.J., Kirkpatrick, B. 2012. The art of red tide science. Harmful Algae 17(0):1-5.

Merino , F. C., Herrera-Silveira, J. A., Okolodkov, Y. B., and Steidinger, K. A. 2012. Karenia blooms in Gulf of Mexico. HAN 46:8.

Millie, D.F., G.R. Weckman, W.A. Young, J.E.Ivey, H.J. Carrick, and G.L. Fahnenstiel. 2012. Modeling microalgal abundance with artificial neural networks: Demonstration of a heuristic ‘Grey-Box’ to deconvolve and quantify environmental influences. Environmental Modeling & Software.  38:27-39.

O’Dea, Sheila N. 2012. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia in Florida Coastal Waters (Master’s Thesis). University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Florida. 103 pp. PDF icon

Soto, I., C. Hu, K. Steidinger, F. Muller-Karger, J. Cannizzaro, J. Wolny, S. Cerdeira-Estrada, E. Santamaria del Angel, F. Tafoya del Angel, P. Alvarez-Torres, J. Herrera Silveira and J. Allen. 2012. Binational collaboration to study Gulf of Mexico's harmful algae. Eos. 93: 49-50.

Twiner, M.J., L.J. Flewelling, S.E. Fire, S.R. Bowen, Stevens, J.K. Gaydos, C.K. Johnson, J.H. Landsberg, T.A. Leighfield, B. Mase-Guthrie, L. Schwacke, F.M. Van Dolah, Z. Wang and T.K. Rowles. 2012. Comparative Analysis of Three Brevetoxin-Associated Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Mortality Events in the Florida Panhandle Region (USA). PLoS ONE 7(8): e42974. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042974 external site icon

van Deventer, M., Atwood, K., Vargo, G.A., Flewelling, L.J., Landsberg, J.H., Naar, J.P., Stanek, D. 2012. Karenia brevis red tides and brevetoxin-contaminated fish: a high risk factor for Florida’s scavenging shorebirds? Botanica Marina 55(1):31-37.

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2011

Garrett, M., J. Wolny, C. Heil, E. Truby, and C. Kovach. 2011. Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:596-601.

Garrett, M.J., J.L. Wolny, B.J. Williams, M. Dirks, J.A. Brame, and R.W. Richardson. 2011. Methods for sampling and analysis of marine microalgae in ship ballast tanks: A case study from Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Algae 26:181-192.

Kirkpatrick, G.J., D.F. Millie, M.A. Moline, S.E. Lohrenz, and O.M. Schofield. 2011. Automated, in-water determination of colored dissolved organic material and phytoplankton community structure using the optical phytoplankton discriminator. In Hou, W.W., and R. Arnone, eds. Proceedings: Ocean Sensing and Monitoring III, April 25-29, 2011, Orlando, FL. SPIE, Bellingham, Washington.

Millie, D.F., G.L. Fahnenstiel, G.R. Weckman, D.M. Klarer, J. Dyble Bressie, H.A. Vanderploeg, and D. Fishman. 2011. An "enviro-informatic" assessment of Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron, USA) phytoplankton: Characterization and modeling of Microcystis (Cyanophyta). Journal of Phycology 47:714-730.

Phlips, E., M. Badylak, J. Christman, J. Wolny, J. Brame, J. Garland, L. Hall, J. Hart, J. Landsberg, M. Lasi, J. Lockwood, R. Paperno, D. Scheidt, A. Staples, and K. Steidinger. 2011. Scales of temporal and spatial variability in the distribution of harmful algae species in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Harmful Algae 10:277-290.

Walsh, J.J., C.R. Tomas, K.A. Steidinger, J.M. Lenes, F.R. Chen, R.H. Weisberg, L. Zheng, J.H. Landsberg, G.A. Vargo, and C.A. Heil. 2011. Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication. Continental Shelf Research 31:891-911.

Young, W.A. 2nd, D.F. Millie, G.R. Weckman, J. Anderson, D.M. Klarer, and G.L. Fahnenstiel. 2011. Modeling net ecosystem metabolism with an artificial neural network and a Bayesian belief network. Environmental Modelling and Software 26:1199-1210.

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2010

Flewelling, L.J., D.H. Adams, J.P. Naar, K.A. Atwood, A.A. Granholm, S.N. O'Dea, and J.H. Landsberg. 2010. Brevetoxins in sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Florida coastal waters. Marine Biology 157:1937-1953.

Garrett, M., Wolny, J., Truby, E., Heil, C., Kovach, C. 2010. Harmful algal bloom species and phosphate-processing effluent: Field and laboratory studies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 596-601.

Havens, H., M.E. Luther, S.D. Meyers, and C. Heil. 2010. Lagrangian particle tracking of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom within the Tampa Bay estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:2233-2241.

Lenes, J.M., and C.A. Heil. 2010. A historical analysis of the potential nutrient supply from the N2 fixing marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. to Karenia brevis blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Plankton Research 32:1421-1431.

Millie, D.F., R.L. Pigg, G.L. Fahnenstiel, and H.J. Carrick. 2010. Algal chlorophylls: A synopsis of analytical methodologies. Pp 93-122 in Algae: Source to treatment.American Water Works Association Manual M57. American Water Works Association. Denver, Colorado.

Nam, D.-H., D.H. Adams, L.J. Flewelling, and N. Basu. 2010. Neurochemical alterations in lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) brains in association with brevetoxin exposure. Aquatic Toxicology 99:351-359.

Stivaletta, N., P. López-García, L. Boihem, D. Millie, and R. Barbieri. 2010. Biomarkers of endolithic communities within gypsum crusts (Southern Tunisia). Geomicrobiology Journal 27:101-110.

Swanson, K.M., L.J. Flewelling, M. Byrd, A. Nunez, and T.A. Villareal. 2010. The 2008 Texas dinophysis ovum bloom: Distribution and toxicity. Harmful Algae 9:190-199.

Ulrich, R.M., E.T. Casper, L. Campbell, B. Richardson, C. Heil, and J.H. Paul. 2010. Detection and quantification of Karenia mikimotoi using real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with internal control RNA (IC-NASBA). Harmful Algae 9:116-122.

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2009

Abbott, G.M., J.H. Landsberg, A.R. Reich, K.A. Steidinger, S. Ketchen, and C. Blackmore. 2009. Resource guide for public health response to harmful algal blooms in Florida: Based on recommendations of the Florida Harmful Algal Bloom Task Force Public Health Technical Panel. Fish and Wildlife Research Institute Technical Report TR-14. viii + 132 p.

Abbott, J.P., L.J. Flewelling, and J.H. Landsberg. 2009. Saxitoxin monitoring in three species of Florida puffer fish. Harmful Algae 8:343-348.

Cannizzaro, J.P., C. Hu, D.C. English, K.L. Carder, C.A. Heil, and F.E. Muller-Karger. 2009. Detection of Karenia brevis blooms on the West Florida shelf using in situ backscattering and fluorescence data. Harmful Algae 8:898-909.

Fahnenstiel, G., Y. Hong, D. Millie, M. Doblin, D. Reid, and T. Johengen. 2009. Marine dinoflagellate cysts in the ballast tank sediments of ships entering the St. Lawrence Great Lakes. Verhandlungen-Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 30:1035-1038.

Glibert, P.M., C.A. Heil, J. Alexander, S. Murasko, and J.M. O'Neil. 2009. Comparative nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics in two subtropical estuaries: Florida Bay, USA, and Moreton Bay, Australia. Contributions in Marine Science 38:37-48.

Glibert, P.M., C.A. Heil, D.T. Rudnick, C.J. Madden, J.N. Boyer, and S.P. Kelly. 2009. Florida Bay: Water quality status and trends, historic and emerging algal bloom problems. Contributions in Marine Science 27:5-17.

Haywood, A.J., C.A. Scholin, R. Marin III, K. Petrik, R. Pigg, M. Garrett, K.A. Steidinger, and C. Heil. 2009. Detection of Karenia brevis in Florida coastal waters using sandwich hybridization assays in two formats. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety, March 18-23, 2007, Bleinham, New Zealand. Royal Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 71. 355 p.

Heil, C.A., P.M. Glibert, S. Murasko, and J.S. Alexander. 2009. Size fractionated alkaline phosphatase activity along a gradient of nitrogen to phosphorus limitation in a carbonate dominated subtropical estuary. Contributions in Marine Science 38:37-48.

Heil, C.A., and K. Steidinger. 2009. Monitoring, management, and mitigation of Karenia blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Harmful Algae 8:611-617.

Landsberg, J.H., L.J. Flewelling, and J. Naar. 2009. Karenia brevis red tides, brevetoxins in the food web, and impacts on natural resources: Decadal advancements. Harmful Algae 8:598-607.

Millie, D.F., G.L. Fahnenstiel, J.D. Bressie, R.J. Pigg, R.R. Rediske, D.M. Klarer, P.A. Tester, and R.W. Litaker. 2009. Late-summer phytoplankton in western Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes): Bloom distributions, toxicity, and environmental influences. Aquatic Ecology 43:915-934.

Richardson, B. 2009. Physiological characteristics and competitive strategies of bloom-forming cyanobacteria and diatoms of Florida Bay. Contributions in Marine Science 38:19-36.

Steidinger, K.A. 2009. Historical perspective on Karenia brevis red tide research in the Gulf of Mexico. Harmful Algae 8:549-561.

Steidinger, K.A., M.A. Faust, and D.U. Hernández-Becerril. 2009. Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata) of the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 131-154 in Felder, D.L., and D.K. Camp, eds. Gulf of Mexico origin, water, and biota: Vol. 1, Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.

Walsh, J.J., R.H. Weisberg, J.M. Lenes, F.R. Chen, D.A. Dieterle, L. Zheng, K.L. Carder, G.A. Vargo, J.A. Havens, E. Peebles, D.J. Hollander, R. He, C.A. Heil, B. Mahmoudi, and J.H. Landsberg. 2009. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress in Oceanography 80:51-73.

Weckman, G.R., D.F. Millie, C. Ganduri, M. Rangwala, W. Young, and G.L. Fahnenstiel. 2009. Knowledge extraction from the neural "black box" in ecological monitoring. Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering 3:38-55.

Williams, B.J. Jr., C. Puchulutegui, J.H. Landsberg, and S.K. Williams. 2009. The cyanobacterium (order Stigonematales) suspected of causing avian vacuolar myelinopathy is confirmed in Florida fresh waters. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 24:309-314.

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2008

Abraham, A., S.M. Plakas, L.J. Flewelling, K.R. El Said, E.L.E. Jester, H.R. Granade, K.D. White, and R.W. Dickey. 2008. Biomarkers of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Toxicon 52:237-245.

Akselman, R., S. Fraga, and K. Steidinger. 2008. Obituary: Enrique Balech (1912-2007). Harmful Algae 7:713-716.

Anderson, D.M., J.M. Burkholder, W.P. Cochlan, P.M. Glibert, C.J. Gobler, C.A. Heil, R. Kudela, M.L. Parsons, J.E.J. Rensel, D.W. Townsend, V.L. Trainer, and G.A. Vargo. 2008. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States. Harmful Algae 8:39-53.

Atwood, K.A. 2008. Brevetoxin body burdens in seabirds of Southwest Florida [master's thesis]. University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. 102 p.

Ayres, D., E. Jewett, J. Landsberg, D. Couture, D. Fyfe, L. Grattan, P. Hoagland, L. Howell, B. Michaels, T. Rowles, C. Scherer, D. Stone, R. Stumpf, and M. Watzin. 2008. Event response workgroup report. Pp. 27-38 in Dortch, Q., D.M. Anderson, D.L. Ayres, and P.M. Glibert, eds. Harmful Algal Bloom Research, Development, Demonstration, and Technology Transfer National Workshop Report. Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Fire, S.E., L.J. Flewelling, J. Naar, M.J. Twiner, M.S. Henry, R.H. Pierce, D.P. Gannon, Z. Wang, L. Davidson, and R.S. Wells. 2008. Prevalence of brevetoxins in prey fish of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Marine Ecology Progress Series 368:283-294.

Fire, S.E., L.J. Flewelling, Z. Wang, J. Naar, M.S. Henry, R.H. Pierce, and R.S. Wells. 2008. Florida red tide and brevetoxins: Association and exposure in live resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA. Marine Mammal Science 24:831-844.

Flewelling, L.J. 2008. Vectors of brevetoxins to marine mammals [doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.143 p.

Henrichs, D.W., M.A. Renshaw, C.A. Santamaria, B. Richardson, J.R. Gold, and L. Campbell. 2008. PCR amplification of microsatellites from single cells of Karenia brevis preserved in Lugols iodine solution. Marine Biotechnology 10:122-127.

Lester, K.M., C.A. Heil, M.B. Neely, D.N. Spence, S. Murasko, T.L. Hopkins, T.T. Sutton, S.E. Burghart, R.N. Bohrer, A.W. Remsen, G.A. Vargo, and J.J. Walsh. 2008. Zooplankton and Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico. Continental Shelf Research 28:99-111.

Milroy, S.P., D.A. Dieterle, R. He, G.J. Kirkpatrick, K.M. Lester, K.A. Steidinger, G.A. Vargo, J.J. Walsh, and R.H. Weisberg. 2008. A three-dimensional biophysical model of Karenia brevis dynamics on the west Florida shelf: A look at physical transport and potential zooplankton grazing controls. Continental Shelf Research 28:112-136.

Paerl, H.W., J.J. Joyner, A.R. Joyner, K. Arthur, V. Paul, J.M. O'Neil, and C.A. Heil. 2008. Co-occurrence of dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms in southwest Florida coastal waters: Dual nutrient (N and P) input controls. Marine Ecology Progress Series 317:143-153.

Plakas, S.M., E.L.E. Jester, K.R. El Said, H.R. Granade, A. Abraham, R.W. Dickey, P.S. Scott, L.J. Flewelling, M.S. Henry, P. Blum, and R.H. Pierce. 2008. Monitoring of brevetoxins in the Karenia brevis bloom-exposed Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Toxicon 52:32-38.

Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, L.J. Flewelling, and B. Kirkpatrick. 2008. Toxic dinoflagellates. Pp. 239-256 in Walsh, P.J., S.L. Smith, L.E. Fleming, H. Solo-Gabriele, and W.H. Gerwick, eds. Oceans and human health: Risks and remedies from the sea. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York.

Steidinger, K., J. Wolny, and A. Haywood. 2008. Identification of Kareniaceae (Dinophyceae) in the Gulf of Mexico. Nova Hedwigia 133:269-284.

Vargo, G.A., C.A. Heil, K.A. Fanning, L.K. Dixon, M.B. Neely, K.M. Lester, D. Ault, S. Murasko, J. Havens, and J. Walsh. 2008. Nutrient availability in support of Karenia brevis blooms on the central West Florida Shelf: What keeps Karenia blooming? Continental Shelf Research 28:73-98.

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2007

Fire, S.E., D. Fauquier, L.J. Flewelling, M. Henry, J. Naar, R. Pierce, and R.S. Wells. 2007. Brevetoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) associated with Karenia brevis blooms in Sarasota Bay, Florida.  Florida Marine Biology 152:827-234.

Haywood, A.J., C.A. Scholin, R. Marin III, K.A. Steidinger, C. Heil, and J. Ray. 2007. Molecular detection of the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and closely related species using rRNA-targeted probes and a semiautomated sandwich hybridization assay. Journal of Phycology 43:1271-1286.

Heil, C.A., M. Revilla, P.M. Glibert, and S. Murasko. 2007. Nutrient quality drives differential phytoplankton community composition on the southwest Florida shelf. Limnology and Oceanography 52:1067-1078.

Landsberg, J.H., Vargo, G.A., Flewelling, L.J., Wiley, F. 2007. Algal biotoxins. In:Thomas, N.J., Hunterm D,B., Atkinsonm C.T., editors. Infectious Diseases of Wild Birds. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub., 431-455.

Litaker, R.W., M.W. Vandersea, K.S. Reece, N.A. Stokes, B.A. Yonish, S.R. Kibler, M.N.D. Black, K.A. Steidinger, F.M. Lutzoni, and P.A. Tester. 2007. Recognizing dinoflagellate species using ITS rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 43:344-355.

Logares, R., K. Rengefors, A. Kremp, K. Shalchian-Tabrizi, A. Boltovskoy, T. Tengs, A. Shurtleff, and D. Klaveness. 2007. Phenotypically different microalgal morphospecies with identical ribosomal DNA: A case of rapid adaptive evolution? Microbial Ecology 53:549-561.

Mason, P.L., R.W. Litaker, H.J. Jeong, J.H. Ha, K.S. Reece, N.A. Stokes, J.Y. Park, K.A. Steidinger, M.W. Vandersea, S.R. Kibler, P.A. Tester, and W.K. Vogelbein. 2007. Description of a new genus of Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate, Luciella gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), including two new species: Luciella masanensis sp. nov. and Luciella atlantis sp. nov. Journal of Phycology 43:799-810.

Naar, J.P., L.J. Flewelling, A. Lenzi, J.P. Abbott, A. Granholm, H.M. Jacocks, D. Gannon, M. Henry, R. Pierce, D.G. Baden, J.L. Wolny, and J.H. Landsberg. 2007. Brevetoxins, like ciguatoxins, are potent ichthyotoxic neurotoxins that accumulate in fish. Toxicon 50:707-723.

Poli, M.A., V.R. Rivera, D.D. Neal, D.G. Baden, S.A. Messer, S.M. Plakas, R.W. Dickey, K. R. El Said, L.J. Flewelling, D. Green, and J. White. 2007. An electrochemiluminescence-based competitive displacement immunoassay for the type-2 brevetoxins in oyster extracts. Journal of AOAC International 90:173-178.

Tiffany, M., J. Wolny, M. Garrett, K. Steidinger, and S. Hurlbert. 2007. Dramatic blooms of Prymnesium sp. and the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium margalefii in the Salton Sea, California. Lake and Reservoir Management 23:620-629.

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2006

Etheridge, S., J. Deeds, S. Hall, K. White, L.J. Flewelling, J.P. Abbott, J.H. Landsberg, S. Conrad, D. Bodager, and G. Jackow. 2006. Detection methods and their limitations: PSP toxins in the southern puffer fish Sphoeroides nephelus responsible for human poisoning events in Florida in 2004. African Journal of Marine Science 28:383-387.

Glibert, P.M., J. Harrison, C.A. Heil, and S. Seitzinger. 2006. Escalating worldwide urea: A global change contributing to coastal eutrophication. Biogeochemistry 77:441-463.

Gregson, B.P., D.F. Millie, C. Cao, G.L. Fahnenstiel, R.J. Pigg, and D.P. Fries. 2006. Simplified enrichment and identification of environmental peptide toxins using antibody-capture surfaces with subsequent mass spectrometry  detection. Journal of Chromatography 1123:233-238.

Jacobson, E.R., B.L. Homer, B.A. Stacy, E.C. Greiner, N.J. Szabo, C.L. Chrisman, F. Origgi, S. Coberley, A.M. Foley, J.H. Landsberg, L.J. Flewelling, R.Y. Ewing, R. Moretti, S. Schaf, C. Rose, D.R. Mader, G.R. Harman, C.A. Manire, N.S. Metee, A.P. Mizisin, and G.D. Shelton. 2006. Neurological disease in wild loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 70:139-154.

Landsberg, J.H., S. Hall, J.N. Johannessen, K.D. White, S.M. Conrad, J.P. Abbott, L.J. Flewelling, R.W. Richardson, R.W. Dickey, E.L.E. Jester, S.M. Etheridge, J.R. Deeds, F.M. Van Dolah, T.A. Leighfield, Y.L. Zou, C.G. Beaudry, R.A. Benner, P.L. Rogers, P.S. Scott, K. Kawabata, J.L. Wolny, and K.A. Steidinger. 2006. Saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning in the United States, with the first report of Pyrodinium bahamense as the putative toxin source. Environmental Health Perspectives 114:1502-1507.

Maier-Brown, A.F., Q. Dortch, F.M. Van Dolah, T.A. Leighfield, W. Morrison, A.E. Thessen, K. Steidinger, B. Richardson, C.A. Moncreiff, and J.R. Pennock. 2006. Effect of salinity on the distribution, growth, and toxicity of Karenia spp. Harmful Algae 5:199-212.

Millie, D.F., G.R. Weckman, R.J. Pigg, P.A. Tester, J. Dyble, R.W. Litaker, H.J. Carrick, and G.L. Fahnenstiel. 2006. Modeling phytoplankton abundance in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron: Using artificial, neural networks to discern functional influence of environmental variables and relevance to a Great Lakes observing system. Journal of Phycology 42:336-349.

Mulholland, M.R., P.W. Bernhardt, C.A. Heil, D.A. Bronk, and J.M. O'Neil. 2006. Nitrogen fixation and release of fixed nitrogen by Trichodesmium spp. in the Gulf of Mexico. Limnology and Oceanography 51:1762-1776.

Pierce, R.H., M.S. Henry, P.C. Blum, S.M. Plakas, H.R. Granade, E.L.E. Jester, K.R. El Said, R.W. Dickey, K.A. Steidinger, P.S. Scott, L.J. Flewelling, and J.L.C. Wright. 2006. Comparison of methods for determination of brevetoxins and their metabolites in NSP-toxic bivalved molluscs. Pp. 37-42 in Henshilwood, K., B. Deegan, T. McMahon, C. Cusack, S. Keaveney, J. Silke, M. O'Cinneide, D. Lyons, and P. Hess, eds. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety, June 14-18, 2004, Galway, Ireland. The Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland.

Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, P.L. Mason, W.K. Vogelbein, P. Tester, and W. Litaker. 2006. Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a small lightly armored dinoflagellate in the Pfiesteriaceae . Journal of Phycology 42:951-961.

Vargo, G., K. Atwood, M. van Deventer, and R. Harris. 2006. Beached bird surveys on Shell Key, Pinellas County, Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 34:21-27.

Walsh, J.J., J.K. Jolliff, B.P. Darrow, J.M. Lenes, S.P. Milroy, A. Remsen, D.A. Dieterle, K.L. Carder, F.R. Chen, G.A. Vargo, R.H. Weisberg, K.A. Fanning, F.E. Muller-Karger, E. Shinn, K.A. Steidinger, C.A. Heil, C.R. Tomas, J.S. Prospero, T.A. Villareal, A.E. Jochens, and P.S. Bontempi. 2006. Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: Where, when and why? Journal of Geophysical Research 111:1-46.

Wetz, M., K. Hayes, A. Lewitus, J. Wolny, and D. White. 2006. Variability in phytoplankton pigment biomass and taxonomic composition over tidal cycles in a salt marsh estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 320:109-120.

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2005

Flewelling, L.J., J.P. Naar, J.P. Abbott, D.G. Baden, N.B. Barros, G.D. Bossart, M-Y. D. Bottein, D.G. Hammond, E.M. Haubold, C.A. Heil, M.S. Henry, H.M. Jacocks, T.A. Leighfield, R.H. Pierce, T.D. Pitchford, S.A. Rommel, P.S. Scott, K.A. Steidinger, E.W. Truby, F.M. Van Dolah, and J.H. Landsberg. 2005. Red tides and marine mammal mortalities. Nature 435:755-756.

Glibert, P.M., S. Seitzinger, C.A. Heil, J.M. Burkholder, M.W. Parrow, L.A. Codispoti, and V. Kelly. 2005. The role of eutrophication in the global proliferation of harmful algal blooms: New perspectives and new approaches. Oceanography 18:198-209.

Heil, C.A. 2005. Influence of humic, fulvic, and hydrophilic acids on the growth, photosynthesis, and respiration of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller. Harmful Algae 4:603-618.

Heil, C.A., P.A. Glibert, and C. Fan. 2005. Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller: A review of a harmful algal bloom species of growing worldwide importance. Harmful Algae 4:449-470.

Kremp, A., M. Elbrachter, M. Schweikert, J. Wolny, and M. Gottschling. 2005. Woloszynskia halophila (Biecheler) comb. nov.: A bloom-forming cold-water dinoflagellate co-occurring with Scrippsiella hangoei (Dinophyceae) in the Baltic Sea. Journal of Phycology 41:629-642.

Litaker, R.W., K.A. Steidinger, P.L. Mason, J.H. Landsberg, J.D. Shields, K.S. Reece, L.W. Haas, W.K. Vogelbein, M.W. Vandersea, S.R. Kibler, and P.A. Tester. 2005. The reclassification of Pfiesteria shumwayae: Pseudopfiesteria, gen. nov. Journal of Phycology 41:643-651.

Paerl, H.W., J. Dyble, J.L. Pinckney, L.M. Valdes, D.F. Millie, P.H. Moisander, J.T. Morris, B. Bendis, and M.F. Piehler. 2005. Using microalgal indicators to assess human- and climate-induced ecological change in estuaries. Pp. 145-174 in Bortone, S.A., ed. Estuarine indicators. CRC Press, New York.

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2004

Bendis, B.J., R.J. Pigg, and D.F. Millie. 2004. Primary productivity of Florida red tides. Pp. 35-37 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Berg, B.A., B.A. Pederson, G.J. Kirkpatrick, C.J. Higham, and D.F. Millie. 2004. Utility of the algal photo-pigment gyroxanthin-diester in studies pertaining to the red tide dinoflagellates Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen and Moestrup. Pp. 276-278 in K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Bronk, D.A., M.P. Sanderson, M.R. Mulholland, C.A. Heil, and J.M. O'Neil. 2004. Organic and inorganic nitrogen uptake kinetics in field populations dominated by Karenia brevis. Pp. 80-82 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Cannizzaro, J.P., K.L. Carder, F.R. Chem, J.J. Walsh, Z. Lee, and C.A. Heil. 2004. A novel optical classification technique for detection of red tides in the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 282-284 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Dickey, R.W., S.M. Plakas, E.L.E. Jester, K.R. El Said, J.N. Johannessen, L.J. Flewelling, P. Scott, D.G. Hammond, F.M. Van Dolah, T.A. Leighfield, M.Y.B. Dachraoui, J.S. Ramsdell, R.H. Pierce, M.S. Henry, M.A. Poli, C. Walker, and J. Kurtz. 2004. Multi-laboratory study of five methods for the determination of brevetoxins in shellfish tissue extracts. Pp. 300-302 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Glibert, P.M., C.A. Heil, D. Hollander, M. Revilla, A. Hoare, J. Alexander, and S. Murasko. 2004. Evidence for dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus uptake during a cyanobacterial bloom in Florida Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 280:73-83.

Havens, J., C. Heil, D. Hollander, G. Vargo, D. Ault, S. Murasko, and J. Walsh. 2004. Isotopic constraints on nutrient sources supporting the 2001 Karenia brevis bloom. Pp. 32-34 in K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Haverkamp, D., K.A. Steidinger, and C.A. Heil. 2004. HAB monitoring and databases: The Florida Karenia brevis example. Pp. 102-109 in Hall, S., S. Etheridge, D. Anderson, J. Kleindinst, M. Zhu, and Y. Zou, eds. Harmful algae management and mitigation. APEC Publication #204-MR-04.2. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Singapore.

Haywood, A.J., K.A. Steidinger, E.W. Truby, P.R. Bergquist, P.L. Bergquist, J. Adamson, and L. MacKenzie. 2004. Comparative morphology and molecular phylogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. Journal of Phycology 40:165-179.

Heil, C.A., M. Mulholland, D.A. Bronk, P. Brenhardt, and J.M. O'Neil. 2004. Bacterial and size fractionated primary production within a large Karenia brevis bloom on the West Florida Shelf. Pp. 38-40 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Hudon, J., G.F. Grether, and D.F. Millie. 2004. Marginal differentiation between the sexual and general carotenoid pigmentation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and a possible visual explanation. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76:776-790.

Kempton, J.W., P. Williams, J.L. Wolny, S.B. Wilde, and A.J. Lesitus. 2004. A real-time PCR assay for the detection of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum in South Carolina estuarine waters. Pp. 312-314 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Lewitus, A.J., K.C. Hayes, J.W. Kempton, L.J. Mason, S.B. Wilde, B.J. Williams, and J.L. Wolny. 2004. Prevalence of raphidophyte blooms in South Carolina brackish ponds associated with housing and golf courses. Pp. 350-352 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Mulholland, M.R., C.A. Heil, D.A. Bronk, J.M. O'Neil, and P. Bernhardt. 2004. Does nitrogen regeneration from the N2 fixing cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. fuel Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico? Pp. 47-49 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Naar, J., J. Kubanek, A.L. Weidner, L.J. Flewelling, A. Bourdelais, K. Steidinger, and D.G. Baden. 2004. Brevetoxin depuration in shellfish via production of non-toxic metabolites: Consequences for seafood safety and the environmental fate of brevetoxins. Pp. 488-490 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Neely, M.B., E. Bartels, J. Cannizzaro, K.L. Carder, P.G. Coble, D. English, C. Heil, C. Hu, J. Hunt, J. Ivey, G. McRae, E. Mueller, E. Peebles, and K. Steidinger. 2004. Florida's blackwater event. Pp. 377-389 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Pigg, R., D. Millie, B. Bendis, and K. Steidinger. 2004. Relating cyanobacterial abundance to environmental parameters in the lower St. Johns River estuary. Pp. 53-55 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002.. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Plakas, S.M., Z. Wang, K.R. El Said, E.L.E. Jester, H.R. Granade, L.J. Flewelling, P. Scott, and R.W. Dickey. 2004. Brevetoxin metabolism and elimination in the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) after controlled exposures to Karenia brevis. Toxicon 44:677-685.

Tomlinson, M.C., R.P. Stumpf, V. Ransibrahmanakul, E.W. Truby, G.J. Kirkpatrick, B.A. Pederson, G.A. Vargo, and C.A. Heil. 2004. Evaluation of the use of SeaWiFS imagery for detecting Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Remote Sensing of Environment 91:293-303.

Vargo, G.A., C.A. Heil, D.N. Ault, M.B. Neely, S. Murasko, J. Havens, K. Lester, L.K. Dixon, R. Merkt, J. Walsh, R. Weisberg, and K.A. Steidinger. 2004. Four Karenia brevis blooms: A comparative analysis. Pp. 14-16 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Walsh, J.J., and K.A. Steidinger. 2004. ECOHAB: Florida: A catalyst for recent multi-agency studies of the West Florida Shelf. Pp. 543-545 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Weidner, A.L., J. Naar, K. Steidinger, R. Pierce, M. Henry, L. Flewelling, and D.G. Baden. 2004. Variability of brevetoxin accumulation levels within individual shellfish during Karenia brevis blooms. Pp. 485-487 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Wolny, J.L., J.W. Kempton, and A.J. Lewitus. 2004. Taxonomic re-evaluation of a South Carolina "red tide" dinoflagellate indicates placement in the genus Krytoperidinium. Pp. 443-445 in Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo, eds. Harmful algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida.

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2003

Joliff, J.K., J.J. Walsh, R. He, R. Weisberg, A. Stovall-Leonard, P.G. Coble, R. Conmy, C. Heil, B. Nababan, H. Zhang, C. Hu, and F.E. Muller-Karger. 2003. Dispersal of the Suwannee River plume over the West Florida shelf: Simulation and observation of the optical and biochemical consequences of a flushing. Geophysical Research Letters 30(13):1709.

Lewitus, A.J., L.B. Schmidt, L.J. Mason, J.W. Kempton, S.B. Wilde, J.L. Wolny, B.J. Williams, K.C. Hayes, S.N. Hymel, C.J. Keppler, and A.H. Ringwood. 2003. Harmful algal blooms in South Carolina residential and golf course ponds. Population and Environment 24:387-413.

Litaker, R.W., M.W. Vandersea, S.R. Kibler, K.S. Reece, N.A. Stokes, K.A. Steidinger, D.F. Millie, B.J. Bendis, R.J. Pigg, and P.A. Tester. 2003. Identification of Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) and Pfiesteria-like organisms using internal transcribed spacer-specific PCR assays. Journal of Phycology 39:754-761.

Millie, D.F., G.L. Fahnenstiel, S.E. Lohrenz, H.J. Carrick, T.H. Johengen, and O.M.E. Schofield. 2003. Physical-biological coupling in southern Lake Michigan: Influence of episodic sediment resuspension on phytoplankton.  Aquatic Ecology 37:393-408.

Steidinger, K.A. 2003. Meeting report. Xth International Conference on Harmful Algae, October 21-25, 2002, St. Pete Beach, Florida. Protist 154:11-16.

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2002

Glibert, P.M., J.H. Landsberg, J.J. Evans, M.A. Al-Sarawi, M. Faraj, M.A. Al-Jarallah, A. Haywood, S. Ibrahem, P. Klesius, C. Powell, and C. Shoemaker. 2002. A fish kill of massive proportions in Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf, 2001: The roles of bacterial disease, harmful algae, and eutrophication. Harmful Algae 12:215-231.

Hu, C., F.E. Muller-Karger, Z. Lee, K.L. Carder, B.S. Roberts, J.J. Walsh, C. Heil, P.G. Coble, K. Steidinger, G. McRae, R.H. Weisberg, R. He, E. Johns, T. Lee, B. Keller, N. Kuring, J. Cannizzaro, J. Ivey, G.A. Vargo, R.G. Zepp, J. Boyer, R. Jones, G. Kirkpatrick, R.P. Stumpf, E. Mueller, E. Bartels, R. Pierce, J. Culter, and J. Hunt. 2002. Satellite images track "black water" event off Florida coast. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 83:281-285.

Kempton, J., J. Wolny, T. Tengs, P. Rizzo, R. Morris, J. Tunnell, P. Scott, K. Steidinger, S. Shymel, and A. Lewitus. 2002. Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina: A multi-analytical approach to identification. Harmful Algae 1:383-392.

Loret, P., T. Tengs, T. Villareal, H. Singler, B. Richardson, P. McGuire, S. Morton, M. Busman, and L. Campbell. 2002. No difference found in ribosomal DNA sequences from physiologically diverse clones of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) from the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Plankton Research 24:735-739.

Millie, D.F., G.L. Fahnenstiel, H.J. Carrick, S.E. Lohrenz, and O.M.E. Schofield. 2002. Phytoplankton pigments in coastal Lake Michigan: Distributions during the spring isothermal period and relation with episodic sediment resuspension. Journal of Phycology 38:639-648.

Millie, D.F., O.M.E. Schofield, G.J. Kirkpatrick, G. Johnsen, and T.J. Evens. 2002. Using absorbance and fluorescence spectra to discriminate microalgae. European Journal of Phycology 37:313-322.

Naar, J., A. Bourdelais, C. Tomas, J. Kubanek, P.L. Whitney, L.J. Flewelling, K.A. Steidinger, J. Lancaster, and D.G. Baden. 2002. A competitive ELISA to detect brevetoxins from Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) in seawater, shellfish, and mammalian body fluid. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:179-185.

Paul, J.H., L. Houchin, D. Griffin, T. Slifko, M. Guo, B. Richardson, and K. Steidinger. 2002. Classification and identification of Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like species. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 27:21-27.

Paul, J.H., L. Houchin, D. Griffin, T. Slifko, M. Guo, B. Richardson, and K. Steidinger. 2002. A filterable lytic agent obtained from a red tide bloom that causes lysis of Karenia brevis (Gymnodinium breve) cultures. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 27:21-27.

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2001

Evens, T.J., G.J. Kirkpatrick, D.F. Millie, D.J. Chapman, and O.M.E. Schofield. 2001. Photophysiological responses of the toxic red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve (Dinophyceae) under natural sunlight. Journal of Plankton Research 23:1177-1193.

Grether, G.F., D.F. Millie, M.J. Bryant, D.N. Reznick, and W. Mayea. 2001. Rain forest canopy cover, resource availability, and life history evolution in guppies. Ecology 82:1546-4559.

Heil, C.A., G.A. Vargo, D.N. Spence, M.B. Neely, R. Merkt, K.M. Lester, and J.J. Walsh. 2001. Nutrient stoichiometry of a Gymnodinium breve bloom: What limits blooms in oligotrophic environments? Pp. 165-168 in Hallegraeff, G.M., S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis, eds. Harmful algal blooms 2000. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms, February 7-11, 2000, Hobart, Australia. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Lester, K.M., R. Merkt, C.A. Heil, G.A. Vargo, M.B. Neely, D.N. Spence, L. Melahn, and J.J. Walsh. 2001. Evolution of a Gymnodinium breve (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) red tide bloom on the West Florida Shelf. Relationship with organic nitrogen and phosphorus. Pp. 161-164 in Hallegraeff, G.M., S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis, eds. Harmful algal blooms 2000. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms, February 7-11, 2000, Hobart, Australia. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Robledo, J.A.F., K. Saito, D.W. Coats, K. Steidinger, and G.R. Vasta. 2001. The non-transcribed spacer of the rRNA locus as a target for specific detection of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and parasites (Perkinsus spp.). Pp. 238-241 in Hallegraeff, G.M., S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis, eds. Harmful algal blooms 2000. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms, February 7-11, 2000, Hobart, Australia. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Steidinger, K., J. Landsberg, R.W. Richardson, E. Truby, B. Blakesley, P. Scott, P. Tester, T. Tengs, P. Mason, S. Morton, D. Seaborn, W. Litaker, K. Reece, D. Oldach, L. Haas, and G. Vasta. 2001. Classification and identification of Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like species. Environmental Health Perspectives 109:661-665.

Vargo, G.A., C.A. Heil, D.N. Spence, M.B. Neely, R. Merkt, K. Lester, R.H. Weisberg, J.J. Walsh, and K. Fanning. 2001. The hydrographic regime, nutrient requirements, and transport of a Gymnodinium breve Davis red tide on the West Florida Shelf. Pp. 157-160 in G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis, eds. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms, February 7-11, 2000, Hobart, Australia. International Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

Walsh, J.J., and K.A. Steidinger. 2001. Saharan dust and Florida red tides: The cyanophyte connection. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:11,597-11,612.

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2000

Culver, M.E., M.P. Soracco, R.P. Stumpf, P.S. Change, and K. Steidinger. 2000. Integrating wind data to determine the influence on movement of a harmful algal bloom event along the northwest coast of Florida. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, May 1-3, 2000, Charleston, South Carolina. Veridian ERIM Intl., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Lewitus, A.J., E.T. Koepfler, and R.J. Pigg. 2000. Use of dissolved organic nitrogen by a salt marsh phytoplankton bloom community. Archives of Hydrobiology Special Issues, Advances in Limnology 55:114-456.

Oldach, D.W., C.F. Delwiche, K.S. Jakobsen, T. Torstein, E.G. Brown, J.W. Kempton, E.F. Schaefer, H.A. Bowers, H.B. Glasgow Jr., J.M. Burkholder, K.A. Steidinger, and P.A. Rublee. 2000. Heteroduplex mobility assay-guided sequence discovery: Elucidation of the small subunit (18S) rDNA sequences of Pfiesteria piscicida and related dinoflagellates from complex algal culture and environmental sample DNA pools. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97:4303-4308.

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1999

Kumpf, H., K. Steidinger, and K. Sherman, eds. 1999. The Gulf of Mexico large marine ecosystem: Assessment, sustainability, and management. Blackwell Science, Malden, Massachusetts. xxvi + 704 p.

Kusek, K.M., G.A. Vargo, and K. Steidinger. 1999. Gymnodinium breve in the field, in the lab, and in the newspaper: A scientific and journalistic analysis of Florida red tides. Contributions in Marine Science 34:1-229

Landsberg, J.H., G.H. Balazs, K.A. Steidinger, D.G. Baden, T.M. Work, and D.J. Russell.1999. The potential role of natural tumor promoters in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 11:199-210.

Marshall, H.G., D.W. Seaborn, and J. Wolny. 1999. Monitoring results for Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria-like organisms from Virginia waters in 1998. Virginia Journal of Science 50:287-298.

Villareal, T.A., Joseph, L., Brzezinski, M.A., Shipe, R.F., Lipschultz, F., Altabet, M.A. 1999. Biological and chemical characteristics of the giant diatomEthmodiscus(Bacillariophyceae) in the central North Pacific gyre. Journal of Phycology 35:896-902.

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1998

Faust, M.A., and K.A. Steidinger.1998. Bysmatrum gen. nov. (Dinophyceae) and three new combinations for benthic scrippsielloid species. Phycologia 37:47-52.

Joseph, L. and Villareal, T.A. 1998. Nitrate reductase activity as a measure of nitrogen incorporation inRhizosolenia formosa(H. Peragallo): internal nitrate and diel effects. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 229:159-176.

Kleppel, G.S., C.A. Burkart, L. Houchin, and C. Tomas. 1998. Egg production of the copepod Acartia tonsa in Florida Bay during summer. 1. The roles of food environment and diet. Estuaries 21:328-339.

Landsberg, J.H., and K.A. Steidinger. 1998. A historical review of Gymnodinium breve red tides implicated in mass mortalities of the manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida, USA. Pp. 97-100 in Reguera, B., J. Blanco, M.L. Fernandez, and T. Wyatt, eds. Harmful algae. Xunta del Galicia and UNESCO.

Steidinger, K.A., P. Carlson, D. Baden, C. Rodriguez, and J. Seagle. 1998. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning due to toxin retention in the clam Chione cancellata. Pp. 457-458 in Reguera, B., J. Blanco, M.L. Fernandez, and T. Wyatt, eds. Harmful algae. Xunta del Galicia and UNESCO.

Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, E.W. Truby, and B.S. Roberts. 1998. First report of Gymnodinium pulchellum (Dinophyceae) in North America and associated fish kills in the Indian River, Florida. Journal of Phycology 34:431-437.

Steidinger, K.A., D.A. Stockwell, E.W. Truby, W.J. Wardle, Q. Dortch, and F.M. Van Dolah. 1998. Phytoplankton blooms off Louisiana and Texas, May-June 1994. Pp. 13-17 in Zimmerman, R., ed., NOAA Technical Report NMFS 143: Characteristics and causes of Texas marine strandings. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington.

Steidinger, K.A., G.A. Vargo, P.A. Tester, and C.R. Tomas. 1998. Bloom dynamics and physiology of Gymnodinium breve with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 133-153 in Anderson, D.M., A.D. Cembella, and G.M. Hallegraeff, eds. Physiological ecology of harmful algal blooms. NATO ASI Series G, Vol. 41. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Stumpf, R.P., V. Ransibrahmanakul, K.A. Steidinger, and P.A. Tester. 1998. Observations of sea surface temperature and winds associated with Florida, USA, red tides (Gymnodinium breve blooms). Pp. 145-148 in Reguera, B., J. Blanco, M.L. Fernandez, and T. Wyatt, eds. Harmful algae. Xunta del Galicia and UNESCO.

Tester, P.A., R.P. Stumpf, and K.A. Steidinger. 1998. Ocean color imagery: What is the minimum detection for Gymnodinium breve blooms? Pp. 149-150 in Reguera, B., J. Blanco, M.L. Fernandez, and T. Wyatt, eds. Harmful algae. Xunta del Galicia and UNESCO.

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1997

Joseph, L., Villareal, T.A., Lipschultz, F. 1997. A high sensitivity nitrate reductase assay and its application to vertically migratingRhizosoleniamats. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 12:95-104.

Steidinger, K.A., and K. Tangen. 1997. Dinoflagellates. Pp. 327-589 in Tomas, C.R., ed. Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Tester, P.A., and K.A. Steidinger.1997. Gymnodinium breve red tide blooms: Initiation, transport, and consequences of surface circulation. Limnology and Oceanography 42:1039-1051.

Tomas, C.R., ed. 1997. Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press, San Diego, California. 858 p.

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1996

Rhodes, L., L. Mackenzie, A. Haywood, and K. Todd. 1996. New Zealand update on HABs, 1992-1996. Harmful Algae News 15:10.

Steidinger, K.A., J.M. Burkholder, H.B. Glasgow Jr., C.W. Hobbs, J.K. Garrett, E.W. Truby, E.J. Noga, and S.A. Smith.1996. Pfiesteria piscicida gen. et sp. nov. (Pfiesteriaceae fam. nov.), a new toxic dinoflagellate with a complex life cycle and behavior. Journal of Phycology 32:157-164.

Steidinger, K.A., and C.R. Tomas. 1996. Dinoflagellates. Pp. 387-584 in Tomas, C.R., ed. Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. Elsevier, New York. 598 p.

Tomas, C.R., ed. 1996. Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. Elsevier, New York. 598 p.

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1995

Baden, D.G., R. Melinek, V. Sechet, V.L. Trainer, D.R. Schultz, K.S. Rein, C.R. Tomas, J. Delgado, and L. Hale. 1995. Modified immunoassays for polyether toxins: Implications of biological matrixes, metabolic states, and epitope recognition. Journal of AOAC International 78:499-508.

Burkholder, J.M., H.B. Glasgow Jr., and K.A. Steidinger. 1995. Stage transformations in the complex life cycle of an ichthyotoxic "ambush-predator" dinoflagellate. Pp. 567-572 in Lassus, P., G. Arzul, E. Erard-Le Denn, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut, eds. Harmful marine algal blooms. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris.

Faust, M.A., and K.A. Steidinger. 1995. Ecology of benthic dinoflagellates. Pp. 855-857 in Lassus, P., G. Arzul, E. Erard-Le Denn, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut, eds. Harmful marine algal blooms. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris.

Landsberg, J.H. 1995. Tropical reef-fish disease outbreaks and mass mortalities in Florida, USA: What is the role of dietary biological toxins? Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 22:83-100.

Landsberg, J.H., K.A. Steidinger, and B.A. Blakesley. 1995. Fish-killing dinoflagellates in a tropical marine aquarium. Pp. 65-70 in Lassus, P., G. Arzul, E. Erard-Le Denn, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut, eds. Harmful marine algal blooms. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris.

Mackenzie, L., L. Rhodes, D. Till , F. Hoe Chang, H. Kaspar, A. Haywood, J. Kapa, and B. Walker. 1995. A Gymnodinium sp. bloom and the contamination of shellfish with lipid soluble toxins in New Zealand, Jan-April 1993. Pp. 795-800 in Lassus, P., G. Arzul, E. Erard-Le Denn, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut, eds. Harmful marine algal blooms. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris.

Rhodes, L.L., A.J. Haywood, and D.W. Fountain. 1995. FITC-conjugated lectins as a tool for differentiating between toxic and nontoxic marine dinoflagellates. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 29:359-365.

Steidinger, K.A., B.S. Roberts, and P.A. Tester. 1995. Florida red tides. Harmful Algal News 12-13:1-3.

Steidinger, K.A., C.R. Tomas, P. Zimba, W. Sargent, E. Truby, R. Bray, B. Bendis, W. Richardson, and R. Zondervan. 1995. Microalgal blooms in Florida Bay. Pp. 189-190 in Edge, B.L., ed. Coastal zone '95: Extended abstracts for the 9th conference. Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, July 16-21, 1995, Tampa, Florida. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., E.W. Truby, J.K. Garrett, and J.M. Burkholder. 1995. The morphology and cytology of a newly discovered toxic dinoflagellate. Pp. 83-88 in Lassus, P., G. Arzul, E. Erard-Le Denn, P. Gentien, and C. Marcaillou-Le Baut, eds. Harmful marine algal blooms: Lavoisier Publishing, Paris.

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1994

Klarer, D.M., and D.F. Millie. 1994. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics in a Laurentian Great Lakes estuary. Hydrobiologia 286:97-108.

Landsberg, J.H., K.A. Steidinger, B.A. Blakesley, and R. Zondervan. 1994. Scanning electron microscopy study of dinospores of Amyloodinium cf. ocellatum, a pathogenic dinoflagellate parasite of marine fish, and comments on its relationship to the Peridiniales. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 20:23-32.

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1993

Bafford, R.A., R.W. Seagull, S.Y. Chung, and D.F. Millie. 1993. Intracellular localization of the taste/odor metabolite, 2-methylisoborneol, in Oscillatoria limosa (Cyanophyta). Journal of Phycology 29:91-95.

Heimdal, B.R., and C.R. Tomas. 1993. Modern coccolithophorids. Pp. 7-145 in Tomas, C., J. Throndsen, and B.R. Heimdal, eds. Marine phytoplankton: A guide to naked flagellates and coccolithophorids. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Landsberg, J.H. 1993. Kidney myxosporean parasites in red drum Sciaenops-ocellatus (Sciaenidae) from Florida, USA, with a description of Parvicapsula-renalis n. sp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 17:9-16.

Landsberg, J.H. 1993. Two new species of coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa, Eimeriorina) from red drum Sciaenops-ocellatus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 16:83-90.

Steidinger, K.A. 1993. Some taxonomic and biologic aspects of toxic dinoflagellates. Pp. 1-28 in Falconer, I.R., ed. Algal toxins in seafood and drinking water. Academic Press Inc., New York.

Thorndsen, J., and C.R. Tomas. 1993. The planktonic marine flagellates. Pp. 7-145 in Tomas, C.R., J. Throndsen, and B.R. Heimdal, eds. Marine phytoplankton: A guide to naked flagellates and coccolithophorids. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Tomas, C.R., and D.G. Baden. 1993. The influence of phosphorus source on the growth and cellular toxin content of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. Pp. 565-570 in Smayda, T.J., and Y. Shimizu, eds. Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Tomas, C.R., J. Throndsen, and B.R. Heimdal, eds. 1993. Marine phytoplankton: A guide to naked flagellates and coccolithophorids. Academic Press, San Diego, California. xiii + 263 p.

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Pre-1993

Dodge, J.D., and K.A. Steidinger. 1982. Dinophyceae: Introduction and bibliography. Pp. 691-697 in Rosowski, J.R., and B.C. Parker, eds. Selected papers in Phycology II. Phycological Society of America, Lawrence, Kansas.

Fraga, S., D.M. Anderson, I. Bravo, B. Reguera, K.A. Steidinger, and C.M. Yentsch. 1988. Influence of upwelling relaxation on dinoflagellates and shellfish toxicity in Ria de Vigo, Spain. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 27:349-361.

Johansson, J.O.R., K.A. Steidinger, and D.C. Carpenter. 1985. Primary production in Tampa Bay, Florida: A review. Pp. 279-298 in Treat, S.A.F., J.L. Simon, R.R. Lewis III, and R.L. Whitman Jr., eds. Proceedings, Tampa Bay Area Scientific Information Symposium, May 3-6, 1982, Tampa, Florida PDF icon. Bellwether Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Jones, A.C., S.A. Berkeley, J.A. Bohnsack, S.A. Bortone, D.K. Camp, G.H. Darcy, J.C. Davis, K.D. Haddad, M.Y. Hedgepeth, E.W. Irby Jr., W.C. Jaap, F.S. Kennedy Jr., W.G. Lyons, E.L. Nakamura, T.H. Perkins, J.K. Reed, K.A. Steidinger, J.T. Tilmant, and R.O. Williams. 1985. Ocean habitat and fishery resources of Florida. Pp. 437-543 in Seaman, W. Jr., ed. Florida Aquatic Habitat and Fishery Resources. Florida Chapter, American Fisheries Society.

Klarer, D.M., and D.F. Millie. 1989. Amelioration of storm-water quality by a freshwater estuary. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 116:375-389.

Loper, C., L.M. Walker, and K.A. Steidinger. 1980. A simple chromosome spread technique for unarmored dinoflagellates. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 99(3):343-346.

Murphy, E.B., K.A. Steidinger, B.S. Roberts, J. Williams, and J.W. Jolley. 1975. An explanation for the Florida east coast Gymnodinium breve red tide of November 1975. Limnology and Oceanography 19(3):481-486.

Steidinger, K.A. 1975. Basic factors influencing red tides. Pp.153-162 in LoCicero, V.R., ed. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, November 1974, Boston. Massachusetts Science Foundation, Wakefield, Massachusetts.

Steidinger, K.A. 1975. Implications of dinoflagellate life cycles on initiation of Gymnodinium breve red tides. Environmental Letters 9(2):129-139.

Steidinger, K.A. 1979. Collection, enumeration and identification of free-living marine dinoflagellates. Pp. 435-442 in Taylor, D.L., and H.H. Seliger, eds. Toxic dinoflagellate blooms. Elsevier North Holland, New York.

Steidinger, K.A. 1983. A re-evaluation of toxic dinoflagellate biology and ecology. Pp. 147-188 in Round, F.E., and D. Chapman, eds. Progress in phycological research, Vol. 2. Elsevier North Holland, New York.

Steidinger, K.A. 1990. Species of the tamarensis/catenella group of Gonyaulax and the fucoxanthin derivative-containing gymnodinioids. Pp. 11-16 in Graneli, E., B. Sundstrom, L. Edler, and D.M. Anderson, eds. Toxic marine phytoplankton. Elsevier, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., C. Babcock, B. Mahmoudi, C. Tomas, and E. Truby. 1989. Conservative taxonomic characters in toxic dinoflagellate species identification. Pp. 285-288 in Okaichi, T., D.M. Anderson, and T. Nemoto, eds. Red tides, biology, environmental science, and toxicology. Elsevier, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., and D.G. Baden. 1984. Toxic marine dinoflagellates. Pp. 201-249 in Spector, D.L., ed. Dinoflagellates. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.

Steidinger, K.A., and E. Balech. 1977. Scrippsiella subsala (Ostenfeld) comb. novo (Dinophyceae) with a discussion of Scrippsiella. Phycologia 16(1):69-74.

Steidinger, K.A., C. Chase, J. Garrett, B. Mahmoudi, B. Roberts, C. Tomas, and E. Truby. 1990. The use of optical pattern recognition in dinoflagellate taxonomy. Pp. 88-89 in Graneli, E., B. Sundstrom, L. Edler, and D.M. Anderson, eds. Toxic marine phytoplankton. Elsevier, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., and E.R. Cox. 1980. Free-living dinoflagellates. Pp. 407-432 in Cox, E.R., ed. Phytoflagellates: Form and function. Elsevier North Holland, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., and W.E. Gardiner. 1985. Phytoplankton of Tampa Bay: A review. Pp. 147-183 in Treat, S.A.F., J.L. Simon, R.R. Lewis III, and R.L. Whitman Jr., eds. Proceedings, 1st Tampa Bay Area Scientific Information Symposium PDF icon, May 3-6, 1982, Tampa, Florida. Bellwether Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Steidinger, K.A., and K.D. Haddad. 1981. Biologic and hydrographic aspects of red tides. BioScience 31(11):814-819.

Steidinger, K.A., and O. Moestrup. 1990. The taxonomy of Gonyaulax, Pyrodinium, Alexandrium, Gessnerium, Protogonyaulax, and Goniodoma. Pp. 522-523 in Graneli, E., B. Sundstrom, L. Edler, and D.M. Anderson, eds. Toxic marine phytoplankton. Elsevier, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., and K. Tangen. 1985. Taxonomy and systematics. Pp. 534-537 in Anderson, D.M., A.W. White, and D.G. Baden, eds. Toxic dinoflagellates. Elsevier, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., L.S. Tester, and F.J.R. Taylor. 1980. A redescription of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa (Bohm) stat. novo from Pacific red tides. Phycologia 19(4):329-337.

Steidinger, K.A., E.W. Truby, and C.J. Dawes. 1978. Ultrastructure of the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. I. General description. Journal of Phycology 14(1):72-79.

Steidinger, K.A., and G. Vargo. 1988. Marine dinoflagellate blooms: Dynamics and impacts. Pp. 373-401 in Lembi, C.A., and J.R. Waaland, eds. Algae and human affairs. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Steidinger, K.A., and L.M. Walker, eds. 1984. Marine plankton life cycle strategies. CRC Publishing Co., Boca Raton, Florida.

Tester, L.A., and K.A. Steidinger. 1979. Nearshore marine ecology at Hutchinson Island, Florida: 1971-1974. VII. Phytoplankton, 1971-1973. Florida Marine Research Publications 34:16-61.

Vargo, G.A., K.L. Carder, W. Gregg, E. Shanley, C. Heil, K.A. Steidinger, and K.D. Haddad. 1987. The potential contribution of primary production by red tides of the west Florida shelf ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography 32(3):762-767.

Walker, L.M., and K.A. Steidinger. 1979. Nearshore marine ecology at Hutchinson Island, Florida: 1971-1974. VI. Plankton dynamics, 1971-1973. Florida Marine Research Publications 34:1-15.

Walker, L.M., and K.A. Steidinger. 1979. Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. Journal of Phycology 15(3):312-315.

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FWC Facts:
A harmful algal bloom, or HAB, is a high concentration of toxic or nuisance algal species that negatively affects natural resources or people.

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