Kirtlands wood warbler

KirtlandsWoodWarbler.jpg

Kirtlands wood warbler: Dendroica kirtlandii

Taxonomic Classification

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Parulidae
Genus/Species: Dendroica kirtlandii (widely accepted as Setophaga kirtlandii)
Common Name: Kirtland’s wood warbler (widely accepted as Kirtland’s warbler)

Listing Status

Federal Status: Endangered
FL Status: Federally-designated Endangered
FNAI Ranks: Not ranked
IUCN Status: NT (Near Threatened)

Physical Description

Kirtland’s wood warbler is the largest species of the Dendroica genus (Sykes 1996).  This species of wood warbler reaches a length of 5.75 inches (14.6 centimeters) with a wingspan of 8.75 inches (22.2 centimeters) (National Audubon Society 2011).  Kirtland’s wood warblers are blue-gray with dark-colored dorsal (back) streaks and yellow streaks on their belly.  They also have black markings on their sides and white crescents above and below their eyes (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2011).

Life History

The diet of Kirtland’s wood warbler primarily consists of small fruit and insects (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2011).

The weather determines the exact nesting time, as the Kirtland’s wood warbler will not nest during colder weather (Mayfield 1992).  Nesting in Florida usually begins between May 16th and June 2nd (Mayfield 1992).  Females use various plants and plant parts to build their nests on the ground including pine needles, pieces of wood, grass, sedge, and oak leaves (Mayfield 1992).  The clutch size for the Kirtland’s warbler is three to six eggs, with females incubating the eggs for two weeks (National Audubon Society 2011).  Eggs hatch between June 9th and June 26th.  Juveniles leave the nest about nine days after hatching but are fed and cared for by their parents until they are six weeks old (Mayfield 1992).     

Habitat and Distribution

Kirtlands Wood Warbler Distribution MapKirtland’s wood warblers nest in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) that are 5 to 20 feet tall (1.5 to 6 meters) and 6 to 22 years old, and inhabit dense scrub during the winter (Mayfield 1992).  Wood warblers primarily nest in Michigan and winter in the Bahamas (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 2011 (1)).  In Florida, the Kirtland’s wood warbler can be found in Collier, Dade, Palm Beach, Martin, and St. Lucie counties (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 2011 (1)).

Threats:

The main threat to the Kirtland’s wood warbler is the suppression of fire in its habitat (U.S. Fish & Wildlife 2011 (2)).  Pines need fire to create the structure the warblers need for nesting.  Cowbirds (Genus Maluthrus) also threaten the Kirtland’s wood warbler by laying eggs in their nests (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 2011(2)).  Cowbird hatchlings are bigger and out-compete the smaller Kirtland’s wood warbler juveniles, which can result in the death of juveniles due to the inability of the parent to supply enough food (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 2011 (2)).  Other threats include development and habitat fragmentation (National Audubon Society 2011).

Conservation and Management

The Kirtland’s wood warbler is protected by the U.S. Migratory Bird Treaty Act.   It is also protected as an Endangered species by the Federal Endangered Species Act and as a Federally-designated Endangered species by Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species Rule External Website.

Federal Recovery Plan External Website
Federal Action Plan External Website

Other Informative Links

Animal Diversity Web External Website
International Union for Conservation of Nature External Website
Michigan Department of Natural Resources External Website
Michigan State University External Website
National Audubon Society External Website
The Cornell Lab of Ornithology External Website
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service – Fact Sheet External Website
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - Multi-Species Recovery Plan for South Florida External Website

 

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References

Mayfield, Harold F. 1992. Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), The Birds of North   America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna.html/species/019 External Website

National Audubon Society. (2011). Kirtland's Warbler. Retrieved July 26, 2011, from Audubon: http://birds.audubon.org/species/kirwar External Website

Sykes, P.W., Jr. 1996.  Kirtland’s Warbler. Pages 197-210 in J.A. Rodgers, Jr., H.W. Kale II, and H.T. Smith (Eds.).  Rare and endangered biota of Florida, Vol. V:  Birds. University    Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. (2011).Kirtland's Warbler . Retrieved July 26, 2011, from All About  Birds: http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Kirtlands_Warbler/id External Website

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (1). (2011, June 26). Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii). Retrieved July 26, 2011, from Environmental Conservation Online System : http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/speciesProfile.action?spcode=B03I  External Website

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (2). (2011, May 23). Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii). Retrieved July 26, 2011, from Midwest Region : http://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/birds/Kirtland/kiwafctsht.html External Website


Image Credit Photo courtesy of Lou George, USFWS



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